CAN GENUINE CHRISTIANS FALL AWAY?:

ONCE SAVED, ALWAYS SAVED?

Michael T. Griffith

1996

@All Rights Reserved

An Important Question

The question of whether or not genuine Christians can fall away is a crucial one, especially for fundamentalist anti-Mormons who believe in the "eternal security of the believer." They believe that once a person is "saved" he or she is "always saved." The LDS Church, on the other hand, teaches the biblical doctrine that even mature Christians can fall away.

One passage which powerfully teaches that genuine Christians can fall away is Hebrews 6:4-6. This is readily apparent in good translations of the text. Here is how these verses read in the King James Version:

For it is impossible for those who were once enlightened, and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Spirit,

And have tasted the good word of God, and the powers of the world to come, If they shall fall away, to renew them again unto repentance; seeing they crucify to themselves the Son of God afresh, and put him to an open shame.

The Contemporary English Version phrases this passage in language designed to be easily comprehended, and I am impressed by the clarity and simplicity of the translation:

But what about people who turn away after they have already seen the light and have received the gift from heaven and have shared in the Holy Spirit? What about those who turn away after they have received the good message of God and the powers of the future of the world? There is no way to bring them back. What they are doing is the same as nailing the Son of God to a cross and insulting him in public.

Does Hebrews 6:4 Refer to Bonafide Christians Who Fell Away?

This question shouldn't even need to be asked, for it is obvious that the verse refers to mature believers who left the church. However, "eternal- security" fundamentalists cannot admit this point because it literally destroys their doctrine of salvation.

Some evangelicals claim that Hebrews 6:4 does not indicate that the people in question had received the Holy Ghost. The evidence is decidedly against this assertion. Equally untenable is the related claim that verses 4- 6 are not talking about genuine Christians. If anything, the author of Hebrews seems to go out of his way to make it clear that he is talking specifically about mature members of the church, hence his veritable laundry list of all the things these people knew and experienced.

For one thing, the end of the verse itself says the people in question had "become partakers of the Holy Spirit." The fact that these individuals had become "partakers" of the Spirit logically implies they did not receive it only once. Someone who has become a "partaker" of something has obviously experienced it more than once, and will do so again.

Furthermore, the use of the word "enlightened" is clear evidence that we are talking about people who were baptized members of the church. In early Christian sources (e.g. Justin Martyr), baptism is called "illumination" (Buchanan 106). The Syriac text of Hebrews 6:4 reads "those who have once descended for baptism" (Buchanan 106). Moreover, four chapters later, the author of Hebrews clearly applies the word "enlightened" to experienced, tested members of the church (Hebrews 10:32-39).

Dr. Harold Attridge notes that Hebrews 6:4-5 provides a series of common images "which recalls the conversion to a new life" (Harper's Bible Commentary, p. 1264). Attridge correctly adds that "many unconvincing attempts have been made to ameliorate the severity of the warning" (1264). One anti-Mormon author wrote to me and said that not all true Christians partake of the heavenly gift because, he claimed, in 1 Corinthians 14 Paul says that participating in the gifts of the spirit "is not for all." But nowhere in 1 Corinthians 14 does Paul say any such thing. In fact, he says the saints are to "earnestly desire the spiritual gifts" (1 Cor. 14:1). Moreover, in 1 Corinthians 12, Paul clearly seems to say that all good members of the church should enjoy at least one particular gift of the Spirit (see especially vss. 4-12).

Still more evidence that Hebrews 6:4 refers to full-fledged Christians who had fallen away is the declaration that they had "tasted the goodness of the word of God." Warren Quanbeck points out that this statement "implies, not sampling, but a genuine experience of the reality" (in Laymon 905). The Greek word for "tasted," geuomai, often carries a broader meaning, as in to partake of something in its entirety (Lenski 118-125). In Acts 10:10, it refers to partaking of a meal, not just to tasting the food. In Hebrews 2:9, we read that Christ "tasted" death, i.e., He fully partook of it. And according to the editors of the ultra-conservative Liberty Bible Commentary,

In the same sense these people [of Hebrews 6:4] have partaken of the heavenly gift and of the Holy Spirit. Further, they have fully experienced the Word of God and the powers of the coming age. (Falwell 683, emphasis added)

Not only is the view that true believers cannot fall contrary to scripture, but it is also repudiated in the writings of the early church fathers. The ancient saints understood perfectly that even mature believers could apostatize.

Unbelievers in Hebrews 6:4-6?

Surprisingly, a few anti-Mormons claim that Hebrews 6:4-6 refers to unbelievers. In all seriousness, one anti-LDS writer told me that in Hebrews 6:4 the ancient author "utilizes geuomai [tasted] within the context of unbelievers." How could an unbeliever experience the heavenly gift? And be a partaker of the Holy Spirit? And experience the goodness of the word of God and the powers of the coming age? And how could an unbeliever be described as having once been "enlightened" when the author of Hebrews uses this term for seasoned Christians elsewhere in the epistle?

Let's recap what Hebrews 6:4-6 says about the Christians in question:

* They were "once enlightened." This same term is applied to experienced, tested members of the church in Hebrews 10:32-39.

* They had "tasted the heavenly gift." Some commentators weakly opine that in verse 4 the author does not mean "tasted" in its normal New Testament theological sense of "to fully experience something" (p. 3). They suggest that in this case the act of experiencing was brief or superficial in nature. Why the arbitrary switch in meanings? As we have seen, even the editors of the staunchly conservative Liberty Bible Commentary acknowledge that the Christians referenced in verse 4 "have partaken of the heavenly gift and of the Holy Spirit" in the same sense that Jesus "tasted" death, i.e., fully (Falwell 683; see also, Lenski 118- 125).

* They had become "partakers" of the Holy Spirit. Again, the fact that these individuals had become "partakers" of the Spirit indicates they did not receive it only once. Someone who has become a "partaker" of something has obviously experienced it more than once, and will do so again unless he chooses to stop partaking. Myles M. Bourke points out that the phrase "sharers in the Holy Spirit" refers to "those who possess the Spirit as a guarantee of the full possession . . . of the eschatological blessings" (in Brown, Fitzmyer, and Murphy 2:391).

* They had "tasted" the good word of God and the miracles of the coming age. As noted above, Warren Quanbeck observes that this statement "implies, not sampling, but a genuine experience of the reality" (in Laymon 905, emphasis added).

Not surprisingly, Theognostus of Alexandria (ca. A.D. 200-270), a highly regarded ancient Christian theologian, viewed Hebrews 6:4 as a warning to spiritually experienced Christians (Roberts and Donaldson 6:156). Theognostus served in the presidency of the Christian academy in Alexandria and was a respected theologian and writer. He was even praised by Athanasius. Theognostus made a clear distinction between the Christians of Hebrews 6:4 and those who were "not yet able to receive what is perfect" (Roberts and Donaldson 6:156). He said that such "imperfect" members could be forgiven for serious spiritual apostasy but that "for those who have tasted the heavenly gift, and been made perfect, there remains no plea or prayer of pardon" (Roberts and Donaldson 6:156).

The Apostasy of Mature Christians and Hebrews 10:26

H. T. Andrews correctly observes that any attempt to soften the "harshness" of Hebrews 6:4-6 is utterly destroyed by Hebrews 10:26 (in Eiselen, Lewis, and Downey 1307-1308). Andrews begins by discussing the point made in vss. 4-6:

When men have once been enlightened, it is argued, and have tasted the heavenly gift and have become partakers of the Spirit, and have tasted the good word of God and the powers of the world to come, and then have fallen away, it is impossible to renew them again unto repentance. (in Eiselen, Lewis, and Downey 1307)

Andrews then observes that in Hebrews 10:26 this doctrine "is restated in a form" which allows for no possible means of escape or misinterpretation (in Eiselen, Lewis, and Downey 1308). The verse reads as follows:

For if we sin deliberately after receiving the knowledge of the truth, there no longer remains a sacrifice for sins, but a fearful prospect of judgment, and a fury of fire which will consume the adversaries. (RSV)

Notice the use of the word "we" in this verse. The author was applying this warning to himself as well as to his readers. Plainly and clearly, this verse, like Hebrews 6:4-6, teaches that genuine Christians can fall away.

Conclusion

The Bible teaches that mature members of the church can fall away. This doctrine refutes the idea of "eternal security" or "once saved, always saved."

----------------------------------------------------

ABOUT THE AUTHOR:Michael T. Griffith holds a Masterís degree in Theology from The Catholic Distance University, a Graduate Certificate in Ancient and Classical History from American Military University, a Bachelorís degree in Liberal Arts from Excelsior College, and two Associate in Applied Science degrees from the Community College of the Air Force.He also holds an Advanced Certificate of Civil War Studies and a Certificate of Civil War Studies from Carroll College.He is a graduate in Arabic and Hebrew of the Defense Language Institute in Monterey, California, and of the U.S. Air Force Technical Training School, San Angelo, Texas.In addition, he has completed an Advanced Hebrew program at Haifa University in Israel.He is the author of five books on Mormonism and ancient texts, including How Firm A Foundation, A Ready Reply, and One Lord, One Faith.

 

NOTE: This article is an edited version of a chapter in the authorís book A Ready Reply.

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND RECOMMENDED READING

 

Achtemeier, Paul, editor.HARPER'S BIBLE DICTIONARY. San Francisco, California: Harper & Row, Publishers,

1985.

 

-----.THE INSPIRATION OF SCRIPTURE.Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: The Westminster Press, 1980.

 

Adams, Roger J.THE ICONOGRAPHY OF EARLY CHRISTIAN INITIATION. Church Educational System Special Project Salt Lake City, Utah: Unpublished manuscript, 1977, copy in my possession.

 

Alcalay, Reuben.THE COMPLETE HEBREW-ENGLISH DICTIONARY.Jerusalem: Massada Publishing Company, 1981.

 

Anderson, Bernhard W, editor.CREATION IN THE OLD TESTAMENT. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Fortress Press, 1984.

 

Anderson, Richard Lloyd.UNDERSTANDING PAUL.Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book Company, 1983.

 

Angus, S.THE MYSTERY RELIGIONS: A STUDY IN THE RELIGIOUS BACKGROUND OF EARLY CHRISTIANITY.New York: Dover Publications, 1925.

 

Arrington, Leonard J. and Davis J. Bitton.THE MORMON EXPERIENCE.Vintage Books Edition.New York: Vintage Books, 1980.

 

Bacchiocchi, Samuele.WINE IN THE BIBLE.Berrien Springs, Michigan: Biblical Perspectives, 1989.

 

Barber, Ian.WHAT MORMONISM ISN'T: A RESPONSE TO THE RESEARCH OF JERALD AND SANDRA TANNER.Auckland, New Zealand: Pioneer Books, 1981.

 

Barker, James L.APOSTASY FROM THE DIVINE CHURCH.Salt Lake City, Utah: Bookcraft, Inc., 1984, reprint of 1960 edition.

 

Barker, William P.WHO'S WHO IN CHURCH HISTORY.Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1977, reprint of 1969 edition.

 

Barlow, Phillip."Unorthodox Orthodoxy: The Idea of Deification in Christian History."In SUNSTONE, September/October 1983. 13-18.

 

Barr, James.BEYOND FUNDAMENTALISM: BIBLICAL FOUNDATIONS FOR EVANGELICAL CHRISTIANITY.Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Westminster Press, 1984.

 

-----.HOLY SCRIPTURE: CANON, AUTHORITY, CRITICISM.Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Westminster Press, 1983.

 

Barrett, Ivan J.JOSEPH SMITH AND THE RESTORATION.Revised Edition.Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University Press, 1973.

 

Barth, Markus.EPHESIANS 1-3.The Anchor Bible.Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1974.

 

Beitzal, Barry."The Right of the Firstborn in the Old Testament."In W.C. Kaiser and R.F. Youngblood, editors, ATRIBUTE TO GLEASON ARCHER: ESSAYS ON THE OLD TESTAMENT.Chicago, Illinois: Moody Press, 1986. 179-190.

 

Benz, Ernst W."Imago Dei: Man in the Image of God."In Truman Madsen, editor, REFLECTIONS ON MORMONISM: JUDAEO-CHRISTIAN PARALLELS.Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University, Religious Studies Center. 1978. 201-222.

 

Black, Matthew.THE SCROLLS AND CHRISTIAN ORIGINS.New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1961.

 

Brown, Raymond E.THE EPISTLES OF JOHN.The Anchor Bible.Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1982.

 

-----, and Joseph Fitzmyer, and Roland Murphy, editors.THE JEROME BIBLICAL COMMENTARY.Two Volumes.Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1968.

 

Brown, S. Kent. "The Dead Sea Scrolls: A Mormon Perspective."In BYU STUDIES, Winter 1983. 49-68.

 

Bruce, F.F.THE BOOKS AND THE PARCHMENTS.Third Edition.Westwood, New Jersay: Fleming H. Revell Company, 1963.

 

Buchanan, George Wesley.TO THE HEBREWS.The Anchor Bible. Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1972.

 

Carson, D.A., editor.FROM SABBATH TO LORD'S DAY: A BIBLICAL, HISTORICAL, AND THEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1982.

 

Carver, James."Answering An Ex-Mormon Critic."†† Mormon Miscellaneous Response Series.Sandy, Utah: Mormon Miscellaneous, 1983.

 

Cherbonnier, Edmond LaB."In Defense of Anthropomorphism."In Truman Madsen, editor, REFLECTIONS ON MORMONISM: JUDAEO-CHRISTIAN PARALLELS.Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University, Religious Studies Center, 1978.155-174.

 

Craig, William L.KNOWING THE TRUTH ABOUT THE RESURRECTION.Ann Arbor, Michigan: Servant, 1988.

 

Chadwick, Henry.THE EARLY CHURCH.Penguin Books Edition.London: Penguin Books Ltd, 1990.

 

Eissfeldt, Otto."El and Yahweh."In JOURNAL OF SEMITIC STUDIES, volume 1, 1956. 25-37.

 

Eusebius.THE HISTORY OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH FROM CHRIST TO CONSTANTINE.Translated by G.A. Williamson.Minneapolis, Minnesota: Augsburg Publishing House, 1965.

 

Evenson, Darrick.THE GAINSAYERS.Bountiful, Utah: Horizon Publishers, 1989.

 

Falwell, Jerry, executive editor.LIBERTY BIBLE COMMENTARY:NEW TESTAMENT.Lynchburg, Virginia: The Old-Time Gospel Hour, 1982.

 

Fiorenza, Elisabeth S."1 Corinthians."In James L. Mays, editor, HARPER'S BIBLE COMMENTARY.San Francisco, California: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1988.

 

Foerster, Werner.THEOLOGICAL DICTIONARY OF THE NEW TESTAMENT.9 volumes.Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1964.Reference from Norman 1977.

 

Fox, Robin Lane.PAGANS AND CHRISTIANS.New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1987.

 

Frangopoulos, Athanasios S.OUR ORTHODOX CHRISTIAN FAITH.Athens, Greece: The Brotherhood of Theologians, 1985.

 

Furnish, Victor Paul."The Letter of Paul to the Colossians."In Charles Laymon, editor, THE INTERPRETER'S ONE-VOLUME COMMENTARY ON THE BIBLE.Nashville, Tennessee: Abingdon Press, 1971.

 

-----.II CORINTHIANS.The Anchor Bible.Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1984.

 

Geisler, Norman.THE BATTLE FOR THE RESURRECTION.Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1989.

 

Gonzalez, Justo L.A HISTORY OF CHRISTIAN THOUGHT.Volume 1.Nashville, Tennessee: Abingdon Press, 1987.

 

Grant, Robert M.GODS AND THE ONE GOD.Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: The Westminster Press, 1986.

 

Griggs, C. Wilfred, editor.APOCRYPHAL WRITINGS AND THE LATTER-DAY SAINTS.Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University, Religious Studies Center, 1986.

 

-----."The Origin and Formation of the Corpus of Apocryphal Literature."In C. Wilfred Griggs, editor, APOCRYPHAL WRITINGS AND THE LATTER-DAY SAINTS.Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University, Religious Studies Center, 1986. 35-52.

 

Gunkel, Hermann."The Influence of Babylonian Mythology Upon the Biblical Creation Story."In Bernhard W. Anderson, editor, CREATION IN THE OLD TESTAMENT. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Fortress Press, 1984.

25-52.

 

Hamblin, William."Aspects of an Early Christian Initiation Ritual."In John Lundquist and Stephen Ricks, editors, BY STUDY AND ALSO BY FAITH.Volume 1.Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book Company and the Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies [F.A.R.M.S.], 1990). 202-221.

 

Hamerton-Kelly, R.G.PRE-EXISTENCE, WISDOM, AND THE SON OF MAN.†† Cambridge, Massachusetts: Cambridge University Press, 1973.

 

Hayman, Peter."Monotheism--A Misused Word in Jewish Studies?"In the JOURNAL OF JEWISH STUDIES, Spring 1991. 1-15.

 

Hoskisson, Paul."Another Significance of the Golden Calf Motif."In John Welch, editor, TINKLING CYMBALS.Provo, Utah: Unpublished manuscript, 1978. 55-70, copy in my possession.Available from F.A.R.M.S., P.O. Box 7113, University Station, Provo, Utah 84602.

 

Hanson, Paul."War, Peace, and Justice in Early Israel."In BIBLE REVIEW, Fall 1987. 32-45.

 

Harvey, A.E.JESUS AND THE CONSTRAINTS OF HISTORY.Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: The Westminster Press, 1982.

 

Hurtado, Larry W.ONE GOD, ONE LORD: EARLY CHRISTIAN DEVOTION AND ANCIENT JEWISH MONOTHEISM.Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Fortress Press, 1988.

 

Jackson, Kent P."'Watch and Remember': The New Testament and the Great Apostasy."In John M. Lundquist and Stephen Ricks, editors, BY STUDY AND ALSO BY FAITH.Volume 1.Provo, Utah: Deseret Book Company and F.A.R.M.S., 1990. 81-117.

 

Jerome.THE HOMILIES OF SAINT JEROME.Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University of America Press, 1964.

 

Jones, Edward T."A Comparative Study of Ascension Motifs in World Religions."In Spencer J. Palmer, editor,

DEITY AND DEATH (Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University, Religious Studies Center, 1978). 89-99.

 

Kee, Howard Clark.JESUS AND GOD'S NEW PEOPLE.Philadelphia,Pennsylvania: The Westminster Press, 1959.

 

Kelly, J.N.D.EARLY CHRISTIAN DOCTRINES.Revised Edition.San Francisco, California: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1978.

 

Kimball, Spencer W.FAITH PRECEDES THE MIRACLE.Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book Company, 1972.

 

Klausner, Joseph.THE MESSIANIC IDEA IN ISRAEL.London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd, 1956.

 

Kluger, Rivkah Scharf.SATAN IN THE OLD TESTAMENT.Translated by Hildegard Nagel.Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 1967.

 

Lemche, Niels Peter.ANCIENT ISRAEL.Sheffield, United Kingdom: A & C Black, 1988.

 

Magill, Frank N.MASTERPIECES OF CHRISTIAN LITERATURE.New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1963.

 

Martin, Ralph P.WORSHIP IN THE EARLY CHURCH.Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1974.

 

Mays, James L., general editor.HARPER'S BIBLE COMMENTARY.San Francisco, California: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1988.

 

McConkie, Bruce R.DOCTRINAL NEW TESTAMENT COMMENTARY.Volume 1.Salt Lake City, Utah: Bookcraft, Inc., 1965.

 

-----.THE PROMISED MESSIAH.Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book Company, 1978.

 

McConkie, Joseph Fielding.HIS NAME SHALL BE JOSEPH: ANCIENT PROPHECIES OF THE LATTER-DAY SEER.Salt Lake City, Utah: Hawkes Publishing Company, 1980.

 

-----."Joseph Smith as Found in Ancient Manuscripts." In Monte S. Nyman, editor, ISAIAH AND THE PROPHETS.Provo, Utah: Brigham Young Univeristy, Religious Studies Center, 1984. 11-32.

 

-----."Premortal Existence, Foreordinations, and Heavenly Councils."In C. Wilfred Griggs, editor, APOCRYPHAL

WRITINGS AND THE LATTER-DAY SAINTS.Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University, Religious Studies Center,

1986. 173-198.

 

-----, and Robert F. Millet.SUSTAINING AND DEFENDING THE FAITH.Salt Lake City, Utah: Bookcraft, Inc., 1985.

 

McDowell, Josh.THE RESURRECTION FACTOR.San Bernardino, California: Here's Life, 1981.

 

Meservy, Keith."Discoveries at Nimrud and the 'Sticks' of Ezekiel."In the NEWSLETTER AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY FOR EARLY HISTORIC ARCHAEOLOGY, Number 142, November 1978. 1-10.

 

-----."Ezekiel's Sticks."In the ENSIGN, September 1977. 22-27.

 

Migne, J.P., editor.PATROLOGIAE GRAECA.161 volumes.Paris:n.p., 1886.Reference from Norman 1977:311 n 103.

 

Millet, Robert L.BY GRACE ARE WE SAVED.Salt Lake City, Utah: Bookcraft, Inc., 1989.

 

-----, and Joseph Fielding McConkie.SUSTAINING AND DEFENDING THE FAITH.Salt Lake City, Utah: Bookcraft, Inc., 1985.

 

-----, and Joseph Fielding McConkie.THE LIFE BEYOND.Salt Lake City, Utah: Bookcraft, Inc., 1986.

 

Milne, Mary K."Laodicea."In Paul Achtemeier, editor, HARPER'S BIBLE DICTIONARY.San Francisco, California: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1985. 547.

 

Morgenstern, Julian."The Mythological Background of Psalm 82."In HEBREW UNION COLLEGE ANNUAL, volume 14, 1939. 29-126.

 

Morris, Leon."Hebrews."In Frank Gaebelein, editor, THE EXPOSITOR'S BIBLE COMMENTARY.Volume 12.Grand Rapids Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1981.

 

Mullen, E. Theodore.THE ASSEMBLY OF THE GODS.Harvard Semitic Monograph Series.Chico, California: Scholars Press, 1980.

 

Newman, Barclay.A CONCISE GREEK-ENGLISH DICTIONARY OF THE NEW TESTAMENT.Stuttgart, Germany: United Bible Societies, 1971.

 

Nibley, Hugh."Irenaeus."F.A.R.M.S. Preliminary Report. Provo, Utah: F.A.R.M.S., 1984a.

 

-----.MORMONISM AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY.Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book Company and F.A.R.M.S., 1987.

 

-----.SINCE CUMORAH.Second Edition.Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book and F.A.R.M.S., 1988.

 

-----.THE PROPHETIC BOOK OF MORMON.Salt Lake City, Utah:Deseret Book Company and F.A.R.M.S., 1989. 1-48.

 

-----."Treasures in the Heavens."In Truman Madsen, editor, NIBLEY ON THE TIMELY AND THE TIMELESS.Provo, Utah: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 1978. 49-84.

 

-----."What Is A Temple?"In Truman Madsen, editor, THE TEMPLE IN ANTIQUITY.Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University, Religious Studies Center, 1984b. 19-38.

 

Norman, Keith."Divinization: The Forgotten Teaching of Early Christianity."In SUNSTONE, Winter 1975. 15-19.

 

-----."Ex Nihilo: The Development of the Doctrines of God and Creation in Early Christianity."In BYU STUDIES, volume 17, number 3, Spring 1977. 291-318.

 

Norris, Richard A., editor.THE CHRISTOLOGICAL CONTROVERSY.Sources of Early Christian Thought.Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Fortress Press, 1980.

 

Olin, John C., editor.A REFORMATION DEBATE.Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1976, reprint.

 

Ostler, Blake."Clothed Upon: A Unique Aspect of Christian Antiquity."In BYU STUDIES, Winter 1982. 31-45.

 

Overholt, Thomas W."Jeremiah."In James L. Mays, general editor, HARPER'S BIBLE COMMENTARY.San Francisco, California: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1988. 597-645.

 

Pagels, Elaine.THE GNOSTIC GOSPELS.New York: Vintage Books, 1979.

 

Parrot, Douglas M."Gnostic and Orthodox Disciples in the Second and Third Centuries."In Charles Hedrick and Robert Hodgson, editors, NAG HAMMADI, GNOSTICISM, AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY. Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers, 1986. 193-219.

 

Paulsen, David."Early Christian Belief in a Corporeal Deity:Origen and Augustine as Reluctant Witnesses."In HARVARD THEOLOGICAL REVIEW, volume 83, number 2, 1990. 105-116.

 

Peterson, Daniel C."Does the Qur'an Teach Creation EX NIHILO?", in John Lundquist and Stephen D. Ricks,

editors, BY STUDY AND ALSO BY FAITH.Volume 1.Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book Company and F.A.R.M.S.,

1990. 584-591.

 

-----, and Stephen D. Ricks.OFFENDERS FOR A WORD: HOW ANTI-MORMONS PLAY WORD GAMES TO ATTACK THE LATTER-DAY SAINTS.Salt Lake City, Utah: Aspen Books, 1992.

 

Prestige, G.L.GOD IN PATRISTIC THOUGHT.Second Edition.London: Society for the Propogation of Christian Knowledge, 1952.

 

Price, James L."The First Letter of Paul to the Corinthians."In Charles Laymon, editor, THE INTERPRETER'S ONE-VOLUME COMMENTARY ON THE BIBLE.Nashville, Tennessee: Abingdon Press, 1971. 795-812.

 

Quasten, Johannes.PATROLOGY.3 Volumes.Westminster, Maryland: Christian Classics, Inc., 1990, reprint of 1950 edition.

 

Reicke, Bo.THE EPISTLES OF JAMES, JUDE, AND PETER.Second Edition.The Anchor Bible.Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1982.

 

Reynolds, George and Janne M. Sjodahl.COMMENTARY ON THE PEARL OF GREAT PRICE.Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book Company, 1974.

 

Rich, Russell B.ENSIGN TO THE NATIONS: A HISTORY OF THE LDS CHURCH FROM 1846 TO 1972.Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University Publications, 1972.

 

Richards, LeGrand.A MARVELOUS WORK AND A WONDER.Revised and Enlarged Edition.Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book Company, 1976.

 

Richardson, Cyril C., editor.EARLY CHRISTIAN FATHERS.New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1970.

 

Riley, Hugh M.CHRISTIAN INITIATION.Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University of America Press, 1974.

 

Roberts, Alexander and James Donaldson et al, editors and translators.THE ANTE-NICENE FATHERS.Ten Volumes.Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1980-1985, reprint of American Edition, 1869-1873.The original edition consisted of only nine volumes; volume 10 is an added volume edited by Allan Menzies.

 

Roberts, B.H.THE LORD'S DAY.Missionary Pamphlet. Salt Lake City, Utah: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1974, reprint.

 

Robinson, H. Wheeler."The Council of Yahweh."In the JOURNAL OF THEOLOGICAL STUDIES, volume 45, 1944. 151-157.

 

Robinson, Stephen E.ARE MORMONS CHRISTIANS?Salt Lake City, Utah: Bookcraft, Inc., 1991.

 

Rusch, William G.THE TRINITARIAN CONTROVERSY.Sources of Early Christian Thought.Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Fortress Press, 1980.

 

Russel, Jeffrey Burton.SATAN: THE EARLY CHRISTIAN TRADITION.Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1981.

 

Scharffs, Gilbert.THE TRUTH ABOUT "THE GODMAKERS."Salt Lake City, Utah: Publishers Press, 1986.

 

Seaich, Eugene.ANCIENT TEXTS AND MORMONISM.Sandy, Utah: Mormon Miscellaneous, 1983.

 

-----."Did the Freemasons Copy Their Ritual from the Mormons?"Sandy, Utah: Unpublished paper, 1984, copy in my possession.

 

-----.MORMONISM, THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS, AND THE NAG HAMMADI TEXTS.Murray, Utah: Sounds of Zion Publishing, 1980.

 

Smith, Morton.JESUS THE MAGICIAN.San Francisco, California: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1978.

 

Smith, Robert F."Satan: Notes on the Gods."December 1992 Draft, copy in my possession.

 

Snyder, Graydon.ANTE-PACEM: ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF CHURCH LIFE BEFORE CONSTANTINE.Macon, Georgia: Mercer University Press, 1985.

 

Sparks, Jack N., editor.THE APOSTOLIC FATHERS.Nashville,Tennessee: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1978.

 

Stadelmann, Luis.THE HEBREW CONCEPTION OF THE WORLD (Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute, 1970).

 

Sundberg, Albert C."The Making of the New Testament Canon."In Charles Laymon, editor, THE INTERPRETER'S ONE-VOLUME COMMENTARY ON THE BIBLE.Nashville, Tennessee: Abingdon

Press, 1971. 1216-1224.

 

Talmage, James E.JESUS THE CHRIST.Thirty-Fourth Edition. Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book Company, 1962.

 

-----.THE ARTICLES OF FAITH, Forty-Second Edition.Salt Lake City, Utah: The Church of Jesus Christ of

Latter-day Saints, 1976.

 

Thompson, Claude Holmes."The Book of Jude."In Charles Laymon, editor, THE INTERPRETER'S ONE-VOLUME COMMENTARY ON THE BIBLE.Nashville, Tennessee: Abingdon Press, 1971. 942-944.

 

Turner, Rodney."The Doctrine of Godhood in the New Testament."In PRINCIPLES OF THE GOSPEL IN PRACTICE. 1985 Sperry Symposium.Salt Lake City, Utah: Randall

Book Company, 1985. 21-38.

 

Tvedtnes, John.THE CHURCH OF THE OLD TESTAMENT.Second Edition.Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book Company, 1980.

 

Tzaferis, Vassilios."Crucifixion--The Archaeological Evidence."In BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY REVIEW, January/February 1985. 49-53.

 

Vestal, Kirk Holland, and Arthur Wallace.THE FIRM FOUNDATION OF MORMONISM.Los Angeles, California: LL Books, 1981.

 

Vine, W.E.VINE'S EXPOSITORY DICTIONARY OF NEW TESTAMENT WORDS.4 Volumes.Westwood, New Jersey: Barbour and Company, Inc., reprint of 1952 edition, with the four volumes combined into one volume.

 

Wellnitz, Marcus Von."The Catholic Liturgy and the Mormon Temple."In BYU STUDIES, Winter 1981. 3-35.

Westcott, Brooke Foss.THE BIBLE IN THE CHURCH.Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1979, reprint.

 

White, James."Mormon Scholars Defend Their Church: A Review and Rebuttal of Offenders for a Word."In PROS APOLOGIAN, Spring 1993. 1-9.This article and the one cited below both appeared in the Spring 1993 issue of PROS APOLOGIAN.

 

-----."Hugh Nibley, The Universal Apostasy, And the Gates of Hades."In PROS APOLOGIAN, Spring 1993. 10-12.

 

Wilken, Robert.THE CHRISTIANS AS THE ROMANS SAW THEM.London: Yale University Press, 1984.

 

Winston, David."Creation EX NIHILO Revisited."In the JOURNAL OF JEWISH STUDIES, volume 37, Spring 1986. 88-91.

 

Woodrow, Ralph.BABYLON MYSTERY RELIGION.Riverside, California: Ralph Woodrow Evangelistic Association, 1981.